The drivers had difficulty controlling their vehicles in the race amid wet conditions caused by heavy rains at Intercity Istanbul Park on a 5.4-kilometer (3.4 miles) circuit.
Finnish driver Bottas, who began from the pole position won the 58-lap race at 1:31:04 on a wet track.
In the post-race interview, Bottas said his victory was one of his "best ever" Formula 1 races.
"It's been a while. It feels good. From my side, that's one of the best races I've had. It's not easy to choose the strategy here in these conditions. It feels like a well-earned victory," Bottas said.
He received his first Formula 1 win since Russia in 2020 and on Sunday achieved the 10th victory of his career.
Verstappen was the runner-up -- 14.58 seconds behind Bottas -- while Sergio Perez finished third with 33.47 seconds behind the race's winner.
"It was not easy today! I'm happy to finish second, in these conditions it would have been easy to get it wrong," Max Verstappen said in an interview.
Red Bull Racing's Mexican driver Perez said it was one of those races to be patient.
"We didn't really know what was going on with the tires today. It was pretty hard to manage," he added.
British driver Lewis Hamilton, who started in P11 due to an engine penalty, came fifth in the Turkish GP.
About 100,000 live spectators
This weekend's race was held with spectators as the novel coronavirus continues to affect daily and social life.
The last time F1 fans were able to watch a race here was in 2011, while almost 100,000 fans attended the Turkish Grand Prix today.
|1||Max Verstappen||Red Bull||262.5|
|5||Sergio Perez||Red Bull||135|
|12||Sebastian Vettel||Aston Martin||35|
|13||Lance Stroll||Aston Martin||26|
|17||Kimi Raikkonen||Alfa Romeo||6|
|18||Antonio Giovinazzi||Alfa Romeo||1|
|20||Robert Kubica||Alfa Romeo||-|