Neymar was one of a total of five players sent off after a mass brawl. The others have also received bans.
French football's governing body LFP said they would investigate the accusation of racial abuse.
Neymar had recently apologized for his behaviour, but renewed his accusations of racism. "Racism and intolerance are not acceptable," Neymar wrote in an Instagram post.
The Brazilian star reiterated that his outburst had been triggered by racist remarks. Gonzalez and Marseille's coach Andre Villas-Boas denied the allegations after the game.